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What causes Macrosomia in diabetic women?

The main reason behind newborns being born with a larger weight, a condition known as Macrosomia, in pregnant women with diabetes is mainly due to high blood sugar levels and insulin resistance.

When a pregnant woman experiences high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia), it causes more glucose to pass through the placenta to the fetus. This leads to the baby having higher blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) and increased insulin levels, which in turn prompts excessive fetal growth, resulting in Macrosomia.

Even with proper treatment, women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) still have a higher risk of Macrosomia, mainly because of insulin resistance during pregnancy.

Other factors that can contribute to Macrosomia in diabetic women include having a higher body mass index before pregnancy, gaining too much weight during pregnancy, and having a longer pregnancy duration.

Additionally, high levels of fats in the blood (hyperlipidemia), even without high blood sugar levels, can also contribute to Macrosomia by providing extra nutrients for fetal growth.

It’s also important to note that factors like obesity and abnormal levels of fats in the blood can further increase the risk of Macrosomia in pregnant women with diabetes.

Reference: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/262679-overview

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