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What are the pregnancy risks for women with T1D?

Pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) carries several risks that require close monitoring and management at all stages of the pregnancy.

Increased risk of miscarriage and congenital malformations: Women with T1D have a higher risk of first trimester miscarriage and birth defects, especially if blood sugar levels are not well-controlled before and during early pregnancy.

Macrosomia: Poorly controlled diabetes can lead to the baby growing larger than normal (macrosomia), which increases the risk of birth complications like shoulder dystocia and birth trauma.

Preeclampsia: Women with type 1 diabetes have an increased risk of developing preeclampsia, a serious condition involving high blood pressure and organ damage.

Diabetic ketoacidosis: The risk of diabetic ketoacidosis, a life-threatening complication, is higher during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes, especially if they experience severe morning sickness.

Neonatal complications: Babies born to mothers with T1D are at higher risk of hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia, and other neonatal complications.

To manage these risks, close monitoring of blood sugar levels, early and ongoing prenatal care, and a multidisciplinary healthcare team are essential for women with type 1 diabetes who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy.


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